Your Waterwheel Solution
The Francis Turbine
Francis turbines can be mounted both vertically and horizontal. This picture demonstrates a Francis where the water can enter freely through the whole circumference and through the outer ring of the guide vanes. These guide vanes can be adjusted so the amount of incoming water could be controlled. Francis Turbines are highly efficient and versatile turbines. They are of the inflow-impulse type on the first stage and of the outflow-axiel reaction type on the second stage of their operation. That is the blades of the first stage receive the impulse of the water entering the turbine from the outside, then the water passes down and out the bottom of the turbine and the lower section of the blades are reacted on by the water leaving the turbine. The Leffel turbine is a variation of the Francis.These turbines are effective on a very wide range of heads and are very much used in spite of their relatively high cost.