 Glossary

Alternating Current == Electrical current which periodically reverses direction.

Ampere == The electrical unit of current known as the ampere is named after the French physicist Andre Marie Ampere, 1775-1836. Ampere taught at the Ecole Polytechnique, de Paris and is famous for his contribution to the field of electrodynamics. Electric appliances ace rated either in watts, or amperes. Technically, ampere is the amount of current which, when passed through a solution of nitrate of silver in water in accordance with certain specifications, deposits silver at the rate of 0,00118 grams per second. The watt differs from the ampere in that the watt is the mount of power expended by a current of me ampere in a resistance of one ohm.

Breast Wheel

BTU == The abbreviation for British Thermal Unit, which is the amount of hut required to raise the temperature of one pound of water me degree, Fahrenheit.

Celsius == Ander's Celsius was a Swedish 1701-44. Professor of Astronomy at Uppsala. While in Paris in 1736 he was instrumental in organizing an expedition to Lapland to measure the art of the meridian there. In 1742, he invent invented the centigrade, or Celsius thermometer with 100 degrees separate the freezing and boiling points of water.

CFS - CFM == Cubic feet per second, or cubic feet per minute One cubic foot of water weighs 62.4 pounds at 62 degrees F. One Cubic Foot equals 7.48 gal. Thus cfs, or clan denote, the volume of water or flow per second, per Monte. Note that the English, or Imperial gallon is 277.274 cubic inches, compared to 231 for the America gallon.

Direct Current == Current which moves in only one direction.

Fahrenheit == The thermometer designed by Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit 1686-1736, a German physicist Fahrenheit- born in Danzig. In 1714 he conceived the ill, 11 substituting mercury 11 spirits of wine in the construction of thermometers. He took as zero an his thermometric scale the lowest temperature observed by lion in Danzig during the winter of 1709. The distance, or space between this point and that in which the mercury was at the temperature of boiling water, he divided into 212 equal parts.

Float Method == This method is not as accurate as the two above. The flow in cfm or cubic feet per second (cusecs) is found by multiplying the cross sectional area of the stream by its velocity.

Fourneyron

Head == Head is the total amount of fall available. Knowledge of amount of vertical drop and the flow in cfs or cfm enables one to calculate the power available.

Hertz == The frequency with which alternating current changes directions, i.e. 60 cycles a second. is called 60 Hertz abbreviated. Its after the German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, 1857-94, who was prominent in the study of electromagnetic waves.

Horsepower == The unit of the rate of doing work. The term originated with James Watt, who determined by experiment that a horse could do 33,000 footpounds of work per minute in drawing coal from a coal pit.

Kilo Watt == The common unit of electrical power. It equals 1,000 watts.

Kilowatt Hour ==The common, unit for measuring electrical energy. Ten, 100 watt bulbs, lighted for one hour, would burn 1 kilowatt hour of electricity. It is abbreviated kWh. W is capitalized, as it stands for the proper name, Watt. This is the way utilities measure and sell electricity, by the kWh.

MegaWatt == 1 MW = 1000 kW (kiloWatts).

Ohm == The ohm is the unit of resistance to the passage of an electrical current through a conductor, named after the German scientist, George Ohm, 1797-1854. Ohm was professor of Physics at the University of Munich from 1852 His monumental studies of electrical resistance led to what is now called Ohm's Law, which is a simple way of finding the third variable, when any two are known. The three variables are: voltage, current and resistance.

Power Factor == In an alternating current system the voltage and current do not always reverse at the same instant in time. That is, they are not always "in phase. "The current can be considered as being divided into two components: one in phase with the voltage and one out of phase with the voltage. The power factor of a circuit is the ratio of the in phase current to the total current. Usually expressed as a percentage. Power is the product of volts, ampere, and power factor.

Volt == The volt is the unit of electrical measurement named after the Italian physicist, Conte Alessandro Volta. 1745-1827. Volta was Professor of Physic at the University of Pavia from 1779, and invented what is new known the voltaic pile, in which a charge of electricity is created by induction. The volt is the pressure that pushes the current down the line. Think of it as analogous to pounds per square inch of pressure in hydraulics. Normal electrical pressures in American homes are 120 for lighting circuits, and 240 for such appliance, as stoves, dryers, and water heaters. In Europe, 240 is standard. The volt is the unit of electromotive force, or emf

Watt == A unit of electrical power earned after the famous Scottish inventor, James Watt, 1736-1819, Watt is also known for his work with the steam engine.

Weir Gate

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